First International Conference on Advances in Intelligent Systems, Soft Computing and Optimization Techniques (ICAISCO 2019)

Publication: Nikola Benin, Ph.D

Снимка на CFP: International Conferences in Engineering, Science and Technology.

First International Conference on Advances in Intelligent Systems, Soft Computing and Optimization Techniques (ICAISCO 2019).

All the accepted papers will be published in #SCOPUS_indexed_journalswith #NO_ADDTIONAL_PUBLICATION_FEE. Names of the journals are available in the conference website.

#ICAISCO_2019 provides a forum to present yourself and interact with the experts in your field and publish your papers in Scopus indexed publications…


UNCTAD’s decade long work to address #ClimateChange’s

Nikola Benin, Ph.D

Конференция на ООН за търговия и развитие.

Снимка на United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

UNCTAD is researching how to reduce economic losses from disasters and climate change, and how extreme events will affect development.

Small island developing states, SIDS, are most at risk of climate change’s impacts – especially their transport infrastructure.

Two Caribbean case studies, Jamaica and St Lucia, show us what challenges lie ahead and what policy actions are needed in the short and long term to manage damage, delay and disruption, and support adaptation for Caribbean ports and airports.

Drawing on earlier related work by UNCTAD, the project was initiated with the aim to strengthen the capacity of policy makers, transport planners and transport infrastructure managers in SIDS to (a) understand climate change impacts on coastal transport infrastructure, in particular seaports and airports, and (b) take appropriate adaptation response measures.

Key project deliverables include national case studies focusing on two vulnerable SIDS in the Caribbean (Jamaica and Saint Lucia) as well as a transferable methodology for assessing climate-related impacts and adaptation options for coastal transport infrastructure in SIDS. The case studies and methodology were reviewed and refined at a technical expert meeting and were presented and discussed at national and regional capacity-building workshops. All documentation, in particular the national case studies (Jamaica and Saint Lucia), the methodology and useful tools and guidance material, as well as related relevant information on the topic of climate change adaptation for coastal transportation infrastructure is presented.


Nikola Benin. Coastal Pollution and Waste Managemen bay Jerry R. Schubel

Nikola Benin, Ph.D


Each year, the 23 coastal states, jurisdictions, and interstate commissions must report, for their estuarine waters, degradation that has reached the point that estuarine areas no longer fully support designated activities. In the most recent state Section 305(b) report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the 23 coastal states, jurisdictions, and interstate commissions reported that

Suggested Citation:“9 Coastal Pollution and Waste Management by Jerry R. Schubel.” National Research Council. 1994. Environmental Science in the Coastal Zone: Issues for Further Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2249.



  • nutrients accounted for 50 percent1 of the total impaired area of estuaries;

  • pathogens accounted for 48 percent of the total impaired area; and

  • organic enrichment/low dissolved oxygen accounted for 29 percent of the total impaired area.

The states cited municipal wastewater discharge as the most extensive single source of pollution to their estuarine waters. It accounted for 53 percent of the total impaired area. Non-point sources may have been underrepresented in the assessment.

It is clear that the problems of the U.S. coastal ocean, and the causes of those problems, are similar to those of the coastal zone of the rest of the world. The first order problems are eutrophication, pathogens, and habitat destruction. All are caused primarily by an increasing population and its waste disposal practices and by changing land use patterns.


The earth’s population is now estimated to be nearly 5.5 billion and is projected to grow to more than 10 billion by the year 2050. Throughout the world, approximately half of all people live in coastal regions.

The increasing world population and the preferential settlement in coastal regions will only exacerbate the problems of the coastal ocean. Since 95 percent of the projected population growth will come in developing countries—countries with little or no infrastructure to manage human and industrial wastes—the most serious coastal-zone problems will be in developing countries.

Throughout the United States, nearly half of the population lives within 50 miles of the coasts of the oceans and the Great Lakes. Population in U.S. coastal areas has increased by about 30 million people over the last three decades, and this growth accounts for almost half the total U.S. population increase over that period. The U.S. coastal population is expected to continue to increase, although at reduced levels (Culliton et al., 1990). By the year 2010, the coastal population of the United States is projected to increase by almost 60 percent. Within coastal regions, people will continue to cluster near estuaries.

Estuarine and coastal areas not only are among the nation’s most populous areas. They also are among the nation’s most densely populated areas. Population densities are highest in the counties of the northeast and Pacific regions of the United States, which together account for 28 percent of the nation’s total population. The northeast region, which extends from Virginia to Maine, is the most densely populated of the five regions (northeast, southeast, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific). It contains 18 of the 25 most densely populated counties in the entire United States, and six of the nation’s seven leading states in coastal county population. The distribution of population in the United States is shown graphically in Figure 9.1.

Suggested Citation:“9 Coastal Pollution and Waste Management by Jerry R. Schubel.” National Research Council. 1994. Environmental Science in the Coastal Zone: Issues for Further Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2249.



FIGURE 9.1 Distribution of population in the United States by region. (Source: Laboratory for Computer Graphics and  Spatial Analysis, Harvard University)

As population in coastal regions grows, the coastal ocean loses. The greatest losses will occur in developing countries unless preventive measures are taken quickly.

GESAMP wrote in 1991:

The exploitation of the coast is largely a reflection of population increase, accelerating urbanization, greater affluence and faster transport—trends that will continue throughout the world. Controlling coastal development and protecting habitat will require changes in planning both inland and on the coast, often involving painful social and political choices.

As the GESAMP report points out, protecting coastal habitat will require planning not only on the coast, but inland as well. For some estuaries, such as Chesapeake Bay, that planning must extend throughout much of the drainage basin. In others, such as Long Island Sound, the area of terrestrial influence is more constrained, and planning and management can be concentrated in the coastal zone. For each coastal system, the zone of influence of human activities needs to be identified and become the basic planning and management unit.

According to Goldberg (1990), tourism accounts for about 10 percent of the world’s gross national product. In many developing countries, tourism is the main source of income. In coastal countries, much of the tourism is dominated by water-related activities. Some of these same developing.

Suggested Citation:“9 Coastal Pollution and Waste Management by Jerry R. Schubel.” National Research Council. 1994. Environmental Science in the Coastal Zone: Issues for Further Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2249.



countries are experiencing the world’s most rapid population growth rates. Few have the resources—fiscal and technical—needed to construct, maintain, and operate the infrastructure needed to handle the wastes, particularly the human wastes, of their burgeoning populations. Typically, sewage is discharged raw into near coastal waters which causes a serious public health threat to bathers and to those who consume raw or partially cooked shellfish. The potential for major epidemiological outbreaks is high and growing.

There are other environmental impacts of discharging raw or improperly treated sewage into coastal waters, particularly into bays, estuaries, and lagoons. The added nutrients can produce eutrophic conditions leading to loss of submerged aquatic vegetation; to shifts in plankton assemblages; to degradation of coral reefs; and, in the extreme, to hypoxic or even to anoxic conditions. The most popular beaches and coastal environments and the tourists they attract are increasingly at risk.

The coastal areas at greatest risk are in developing countries. They can and should be identified now and steps should be taken to assist those countries in protecting them. Priority should be given to protecting those coastal areas that are still in good condition. Preventive environmental medicine is a far more effective and less costly strategy than restorative environmental medicine.


The National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) classifies shellfish-growing waters to protect public health. It is a cooperative program involving states, industry, and the federal government. Since 1983, the NSSP has been administered through the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference. The NSSP requires states to classify shellfish-growing waters according to approved protocols into four categories: Approved, Conditionally approved, restricted, and prohibited.

Data from 1985 and 1990 are summarized in Table 9.1. The pollution sources affecting shellfish-growing areas in 1990 are summarized in Table 9.2.

The data in Table 9.2 indicate the effects of coastal development on classification of shellfish-growing areas between 1985 and 1990. According to NOAA (1991) the largest increases in closures are attributed to urban runoff increasing from 23 to 38 percent of harvest-limited waters. The acreage adversely affected by septic systems increased from 22 to 37 percent. NOAA attributed the increasing effects of septic systems to the continuing growth of tourism and vacation homes. The impacts of boating rose from 11 to 18 percent.


I am unaware of any systematic summaries of the trends of nutrients in U.S. coastal waters. I expect that levels in many estuaries are increasing, primarily because of increased populations. In Long Island Sound, over the past 50 years the non-point-source input of nutrients from agriculture has declined, but the non-point-source input from creeping suburbanization has increased. Over the same period, the point-source inputs from New York City treatment plants has been relatively stable, but non-point-sources in coastal counties bordering the sound have increased significantly. Over-enrichment of Long Island Sound by nitrogen is considered by the Long Island Sound Study to be the most important hazard to the sound ecosystem. In 1991, New York and Connecticut signed a pact to cap nutrient inputs at 1991 levels and to work to decrease the input. To maintain nutrient inputs to the sound at 1991 levels—levels that are already too high—a significant investment will be required in the future—even in a region that now has one of the slowest population growth rates in the nation. Schubel and Pritchard (1991) estimated that in the year 2050, it would require an additional removal of 20-25 percent of the nitrogen to honor the 1991 cap.

 Waste Management in the ASEAN
Region: Status, Trends and Problems
Waste Management in the Coastal Area of Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam is situated on the
northwestern coast of the island of Borneo.
between east longitudes 1 14″ 23′ and 1 15″
23′ and between north latitudes 4″ and 5″ 5′.
It shares a common border with the eastern
Malaysian state of Sarawak, which cuts
across Brunei (Fig. 1).
The country’s high per capita income estimated
at US$17,000, the favorable balance of
payment and the relatively small population
has enabled the country to enjoy a high standard
of living. Since the discovery of oil in
1929, the country has gradually moved
towards an economy based on petroleum
exploitation which reached its zenith in the
late 1970s. With the government’s consemation
policy on petroleum extraction and the
interest in diversifying the economy, attention
has begun to focus on the industrial development
of other resources. Rapid industrialization,
urbanization and population
increases are bound to make additional
demands on all services, including those of
waste management. In anticipation of the
country’s future needs, the government has taken several steps to alleviate the waste
management problems. The recomrnendations
of several commissioned studies on
solid and liquid waste management have
been implemented or are being studied for
Geology, drainage, soils, climate, demography,
activity patterns in the coastal area and
other factors need to be considered because
they directly or indirectly affect waste management
in the coastal area.
In this paper. the term coastal area is
defined as “1 krn landward from shore
extending out seawards to the 20-fathom
isobath (Chou and Halidi 1987). In addition.
the estuaries of important rivers–Sg.
Temburong, Brunei, Tutong and Belait–and
areas reached by tides are considered part of
the coastal area (Fig. 2). Coastal area
management is vital for the protection and
conservation of the coastal environment.
The significance of the
Brunei Darussalam coastal area
Brunei Darussalam is a relatively small
coastal state in Southeast Asia with a 130-
km coastline bordering the South China Sea
(DOTCP 1987a). Its urban centers are coastal
and more than 85% of its population lives in
the coastal zone. Much of the economic
activities, including the country’s most
important economic activity, oil and gas
exploitation, occurs in this zone.
Economic and Social Benefits of the Coastal
Area. Many social and economic benefits are
derived from the coastal area which includes
the urban towns of Bandar Seri Begawan (the
capital city), Seria-Belait, Muara and Tutong.
Gross domestic product (GDP). In 1988,
economic contributions from the coastal area
constituted more than 90% of the total GDP
(at 1974 constant prices). The highest contribution
(59.5%) came from the oil and gas
industry. Other contributions came from
fisheries, mangrove harvesting, water transportation,
beach sand mining, agriculture,
other industries and services.
Employment. Employment generated by
economic activities in the coastal area is
approximately 81% of the total private sector
employment. But, the government remains
the most important source of employment in
the country.
Food. Approximately one-half of the fresh
fish and shrimp consumed in Brunei Darussalam
come from the local fisheries industry.
Vegetables, fruits, poultry and eggs (where
self-sufficiency has been attained) are produced
in the coastal area.
Foreign exchange. In 1986. oil and gas
contributed 97.18% of the total exports with
a total value of B$3.877 billion (EPU 1988).1
This has exceeded the import of food, goods
and services.



Nikola Benin. Czechia-Asia Cultural Co-operation

Nikola Benin, Ph.D

The topic of artistic and cultural co-operation has been rapidly gaining significance in regional, national as well as local contexts, both in Asia and Europe.

In the lead up to the ASEF Unplugged session in Prague, the Arts and Theatre Institute conducted an online survey amongst the Czech arts and culture sector practitioners about their previous engagement and future plans in the area of international co-operation. The response generated to this survey invitation was much higher than expected, more than 60 representatives answered this small survey about previous collaboration with partners from Asia and future plans in this field.

Overview of international co-operation in the Czech culture sector

Preparing an overview about the cultural co-operation projects between Czechia and Asia was an uphill task, as there is no central overview or database that one could work with. Nevertheless, with the help of colleagues at the Arts and Theatre Institute from different sectors – dance, literature, music and theatre –key examples of international co-operation projects could be collected. One of the observations that kept coming up during the discussions was that for co-operation with such a huge, geographically distant and culturally diverse territory, personal engagement, good knowledge and high costs were major determining factors. Therefore, it is also a matter of personal relations with potential partners, financial support and, at times chance, whether a collaboration would come true. Nevertheless, some highlights in international cultural co-operation between Czech artists and Asian ASEM countries do stand out. The countries of particular focus, as it was reflected in the survey result, are Japan, Korea and China.

10 projects supported: Mainly in classical music, visual arts, architecture and theatre.

Architectura Antonín Raymond 7x / travelling exhibition Japan and Philippines (Japan, Philippines)

Jana Boušková, the Harp Queen (Japan)

NEIRO Association for Expanding Arts – Czechs composing for Japanese instruments – concert and artistic dialogue in Tokyo (Japan)

Czech exhibition “Lukáš Rathouský and Theodoric of Prague” (Japan)

South Czech Philharmonic – China National Tour 2016-2017 (China)

Moravec – Příhoda – TRAJEKTORY (China)

Eben Trio tour in China 2017 (China)

Balet Praha: Participation of Prague Chamber Ballet in a dance festival in Busan (Korea)

Bohuslav Martinů Philharmonic Orchestra South Korea tour 4th Nov – 13th Nov 2017 (Korea)

The Loser(s) – PAMS (Korea)

Наука, технологии и иновации за развитие на предприятията

Никола Бенин

Какви предизвикателства срещат предприемачите в развиващите се страни в иновациите на цифровата граница (digital frontier)?

Този въпрос ще бъде в центъра на вниманието на 10-та сесия на Комисията за инвестиции, предприемачество и развитие към ООН, която започва своята работа в Женева на 5 декември 2018 година.

Науката, технологиите и иновациите са важни средства за изпълнение на Програмата за устойчиво развитие за 2030 г. Това се дължи на потенциала им да стимулират иновационното предприемачество, което осигурява растеж и устойчива заетост.

Мрежите от динамични, иновативни фирми също са ключова характеристика на успешните стратегии за продуктивна диверсификация и индустриализация. Ето защо развитието на способностите в областта на науката, технологиите и иновациите сред фирмите и предприемачите следва да бъде фокус на вниманието за политиците.

Съгласно точка 5 от дневния ред, Комисията ще проведе политически диалог, фокусиран върху връзката между политиките в областта на науката, технологиите и иновациите и политиките в подкрепа на развитието на предприятията.

Ще се обмислят опит и поуки, натрупани при разработването и прилагането на политики за насърчаване появата и развитието на иновативно предприемачество, със специален акцент върху мерките за преодоляване на ограниченията, пред които са изправени предприемачите, разработващи продукти или услуги, имащи отношение към целите на устойчивото развитие. клъстеризиране на иновативни фирми и да се използват възможностите за цифрово предприемачество.

Nikola Benin. Looking for 1 Slovak or Czech candidate

Снимка на Basia Ligas.

Looking for 1 Slovak or Czech candidate to take the last place available on the EuroAnima TC in Poland.

When: 10-19 Dec 2018
Where: Szczawnica, Poland
Theme: Animated movies 

Interested? Find out more on:

Nikola Benin. 14th ASEF Classroom Network Conference

Nikola Benin, Ph.D

Снимка на ASEFEdu.

Снимка на ASEFEdu.

Снимка на ASEFEdu.

Launched in 1998, the ASEF Classroom Network (ASEF ClassNet) fosters collaborations among secondary and high school teachers and students in Asia and Europe while harnessing the potential and opportunities of technology for education.


To-date, more than 1,400 teachers from 45 ASEM Partner countries have joined the ASEF Classroom Network. In addition, more than 32,000 students have been engaged in 398 school-to-school collaborations since 2001.


ASEF ClassNet comprises three activities:

1.  Annual ASEF ClassNet Conferences for teachers to share experiences, network and to enhance their professional skills


2.  ASEF ClassNet School Collaborations jointly developed and run by Asian and European schools on-site and online to facilitate and promote inter-cultural exchanges between teachers and students


3. ASEF ClassNet Website to connect schools and teachers through one online platform.

The 14th ASEF ClassNet Conference will take place from 27-30 November 2018 in Helsinki & Espoo, Finland, and focuses on the theme “Gender Equality Reprogramming STEM Education”. Finland and it’s world-famous progressive and innovative education system appears to be the perfect soil to host this conference that will bring together about 100 secondary, vocational and high school teachers and educators from up to 51 Asian and European countries to explore and share good practices on the field of gender equality and STEM education, as well as its  possible impact on the society. Core areas that will be addressed through a gender lense are: curriculum and pedagogy; institutional and national policies; role models. Participants will also have the opportunity to tie up with their peers to identify and plan future ASEF ClassNet School Collaborations.




The programme is built on 3 elements:


1.  Research & Enrichment

Expert talks and panel discussions on gender equality within education featuring teachers, educators, school leaders, policy makers and researchers to gain knowledge about the most up-to-date trends on current academic debates


2.  Training & Networking

Practical workshops and trainings from practitioners to place yourself and your school at the forefront of this development and extend your network

3.  ASEF ClassNet Awards & Collaborations

Discover the most outstanding ASEF ClassNet collaborations from this year and find school partners for future co-operations and exchanges.



The Conference offers participants a platform to:

  • Meet local, national and international education practitioners and experts from 51 Asian and European countries
  • Become part of the creation of new networks between teachers, school leaders, researchers and edutech experts with possible spin-off activities
  • Increase knowledge and awareness, reflect and give feedback on methods, good practices theories and policies of gender equality and STEM education
  • Discuss the identification and mapping of competences required by educators to promote gender equality, by combating stereotypical biases and promoting gender neutral curriculums.